Episode 22

Published on:

10th May 2021

#22 The DR5 Model

The DR5 model

In this episode, Dr. Zab Johnson, Dr. Al’ai Alvarez, and Dr Preston Cline will break down the DR5 model using a Trauma Resuscitation scenario.

The DR5 represents the latest version of the original MCTI Learning Diagnostic Tool (The LERP and then the DR4) that was developed through a collaborative inquiry process between the Mission Critical Team Institute, Naval Special Warfare, and the Wharton Neuroscience Initiative (UPENN), to improve the training for hostage rescue teams. This version was specifically developed for use in medical resuscitation. As always, it is designed as a tool to help Instructor Cadre improve performance within immersion events and is currently being utilized by teams worldwide. Initially created to move past the all too common “You Suck! Suck Less!” instructor/student interaction by providing instructors a more precise language to overcome the Tacit Knowledge Transfer Problem [1]. This is the problem that experts face when trying to explain or articulate their expertise (e.g., Having the skill to ride a bike versus explaining that skill to another). Using research from Psychology, Education, and Neuroscience, the DR5 model breaks down the immersion event into 5 distinct areas of Detection, Recognition, Reaction, Response, Reset, and Reflection. While neurologically, these stages do not behave sequentially [2], the model provides Instructor Cadres a mechanism for specificity [3] to diagnose better and mediate learning within and after immersion events.


Dr. Elizabeth (Zab) Johnson

Executive Director, Wharton Neuroscience Initiative

Senior Fellow, Wharton Neuroscience Initiative

Elizabeth (Zab) Johnson is the executive director and senior fellow of the Wharton Neuroscience Initiative. Her research focuses on vision and visual behavior. Her work spans physiological approaches in the retina and early visual cortex to using eye tracking to investigate how human observers look and navigate through the world, how these processes unfold over time and with experience, and the role of social cognition and decision making in these processes. She is an expert on color vision. She received her PhD in Neural Science at New York University.


Al'ai Alvarez, MD, FACEP, FAAEM (@alvarezzzy)

Assistant Residency Program Director, Emergency Medicine

Clinical Assistant Professor - Co-Chair, WellMD Physician Wellness Forum

Stanford University School of Medicine

Al'ai is a clinical assistant professor of Emergency Medicine (EM) and an associate residency program director (APD) at the Stanford Emergency Medicine Residency Program. He is the APD for Residency Process Improvement (Quality and Clinical Operations), Recruitment (Diversity), and Well-being (Inclusion). Dr. Alvarez focuses on the intersectionality and interdependence of wellbeing with performance improvement on patient experience, quality and patient safety, diversity, equity and inclusion, and medical education.

Additional Articles

DR5 Model

High Performance Resuscitation Teams

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About the Podcast

Mission Critical Team Institute Teamcast
Preston Cline, Coleman Ruiz, and the Mission Critical Team Institute share research and explore the questions vexing the most elite teams in the world, from Special Operations soldiers to Firefighters, from Trauma Medics to Professional Athletes, and from Astronauts to Tactical Law Enforcement.

About your hosts

Coleman Ruiz

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Co-Founder and Director of Performance, Mission Critical Team Institute

Preston Cline

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Co-founder and Director of Research and Education at the Mission Critical Team Institute
Senior Fellow, Center for Leadership and Change Management, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania